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                                        OF ELAM AND LUD


                    Ancient Elam

                        The Sarmatians

                        Who are the Poles?

                        The Serbians and Croatians

                        The Wends

                        The Modern Descendants of Lud


                        The Future of East Europe !



                                          AND BALTS


                        The Mitanni

                        The land of Rashu

                        Rosh  -  The Original Russians

                        The Varangian Rus


                        The Brahmins

                        Where are the Medes and Persians today ?

                        Origins of the Rumanians

                        Who are the Letts ?

                        From northwest India to the Baltic

                        Physical Anthropology of the Balts

                       The Hungarians




                    Isaiah's Warning

                        The modern descendants of Madai

                        Where is Tubal ?


                        Russian claims of Ethnic Origins







CHART 1: Noah's Descendants









































































































































































































































































































Today we hear much about East Europe in the news. Almost every day events in that part of the world excites the imagination of politicians and grips the attention of viewers, listeners and readers around the globe.


Just what is the meaning of events in Central and Eastern Europe? And, most importantly, how might we interpret these astounding events in the light of the Bible.


In the closing years of the seventies and early eighties, I researched the perplexing question as to the origins of these fascinating peoples. It is evident that the average Anglo-Saxon-Kelt has no idea as to the deep rooted superstitions, ancient suspicions, national ferver and historical backgrounds of these nations. Their culture is brilliant, yet their national personalities differ markedly from that of the north-west Europeans. Why is this so? This booklet attempts to demonstrate the origins of these peoples and answers many of our questions about them. This research will also afford us valuable insights into their future.


The author would be pleased to hear from anyone who would like to write to him. He would be more than grateful to receive any ideas to improve this booklet, further evidence to substantiate the matters contained herein or corrections. His address may be found on the inside front page.


It is not the aim of this booklet to present an outline of the history or a detailed analysis of these peoples. I do, however, recommend The Guide to the Peoples of Europe edited by Felipe Fernandez-Armeste; The Races of Europe by William Z Ripley (pp 335-435) and The Races of Europe by Carleton S Coon (pp 559-617).












Where are the Elamites and the peoples of Lud today? Can we trace their movements from the Middle East? Or did they become "lost" from view, unable to be traced? Only an analysis of the physical type of both Lud and the Elamites and their tribal names can give us a clue as to their modern identities. Hold on to your hat as we go on a whirlwind tour of the exciting historical and anthropological data from which we may form an educated opinion.




The Elamites dwelt in south-west Persia;[1], Khuzistan to be precise[2]. This is also south-east of Babylonia. What were they like racially? Anthropologists describe them as being neither Nordic; nor Semetic; (Arabs)[3]. Hinz, author of The Lost World Of Elam, writes


"Any attempt to trace the Elamites ethnologically is beset with difficulties. The more you investigate available sources, the more you get the impression that the Elamites were...a race of immutable independence. No relationship with other peoples has yet emerged."[4]


He adds that the glazed brick reliefs depict three different races existing in Elam : white, brown and another so dark that it is almost black[5]. The white ethnic group in Elam were the original literal descendants of Elam and may be classified as Alpine; racially according to an expert in the field, Taylor[6].


Dr Gayre has this to say :


"Donald A. Mackenzie, citing C.H.W.Johns, asks: 'were the pre-Semitic Elamites originally speakers of an agglutinative language, like the Sumerians and the present-day Basques, who were conquered in pre-historic times by a people of  Aryan; speech?"[7]


Historian, Los, concurs, maintaining that the Elamites we find depicted on the monuments are round-headed (brachycephalic;) and have a receding forehead like the Sumerians[8] and all experts are aware of the fact that they were white and definitely not brown Arabic Semites.[9]


The Elamites came into unfortunate conflict with Assyria;. The powerful Assyrians; mercilessly invaded Elam, sacked Susa; their capital, and slaughtered many of them. Thus they became eternal enemies. Later, Elam was destroyed by Media; (c 640 BC) together with their capital, Susa;. This ended the Elamite power, even though Cyrus, King of Persia, made Susa one of his capitals a century later. Those that escaped migrated to find a new homeland. Where did the Elamites eventually settle down? Who might be the modern descendants of Elam today?


The tribes of Elam were the Anzan;, Uxii; or Uxians, Armardians;, Mardians, Khapirt, Aipir, Messadatae;, Cissi, Cossaei; or Cossi[10]. In addition Elam contained the Khuzi or Huzha tribe[11]. The Kassi ;or Cassite tribes were also known as the Kossai or Kashshu[12] and thus were probably Kassite robber tribes dwelling in north-west Elam[13]. The name may also be spelt Kissean, Kossean or Kossaioi. The Assyrians called these Kassi hill-tribes of west Elam the Kusu[14].




What  became of the Elamites and the non-Elamite Kushu and the Massadetae who migrated with them? They migrated into southern Russian and settled along the Don with Madai, being known as the Sauromatae by Diodorus and other Greek historians. Perhaps the name derives from, or partly derives from, the name of the Armardian or Armatian Elamite tribe. The word Sarmatian may also be spelt Samartian. However, some writers dispute whether they are an identical people to the Sauromatae. It may be that the Sauromatae are the descendants of Madai and the Sarmatians descend from Elam and that the two became confused by observers and ancient historians due to their close proximity and similarity. Vernadsky notes the following


"It is doubtful that the name 'Sarmatae' has any inner connexion with 'Sauromatae'; the similarity must be accidental...the Greeks and the Romans called the 'Sarmatian' tribes 'Sarmatae'... "[15]


In any event, Pliny mentions that they were part of the Scythian hordes[16]. Amongst their tribes were the Alani, Iazyges, Roxolani, Siraces, Aorsi and Antae[17]; not all of these were Elamites or even descendants of Madai. The Iazyges were also known as the Iaxamatae or Ixibatai[18] and the Chinese called the Aorsi the Yentsai of Antsai (Antae)[19] which was perhaps descended from the Elamite Anzan tribe.


In terms of their physical biology and anthropology, Professor Coon informs us that the Samartians were White and in no way may be considered as Mongoloid[20]. They conquered western Scythia in Roman times and reached the Carpathian mountains, naming them the Sarmatian mountains and is so called throughout the ancient Book of Vles. We know that the Sarmatians were an Iranian-speaking people[21] and that their weapons, implements and artistic objects were comparable to those of Elam and Mesopotamia[22]. In addition, Elamite art 'influenced' the Sarmatians and both Persian and Elamite axes have been found among them[23]. Of course - for they were  the Elamites!


It is also of interest that "Sar" in Sarmatian originally meant "Prince" or "tribal chief", according to Vernadsky[24]. In the ancient Middle East "Sar" meant "king" in Assyrian[25] and I'm sure we have all heard of the famous Persian Shahs. We also find in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance that "Sar" in Hebrew means a "headperson ... captain ... chief ... general ... governor ... prince ruler"[26]. Thus the origin of the word is clearly the Middle East.


Eventually, the proto-Slavs (who shall be discussed in the following chapter), came under the dominion of the Sarmatians[27]and their culture was greatly influenced by the latter[28]. But after the power of the Alans (and in particular their leading tribe, the Spali or Speri)  was broken by the Goths, the leading role was taken over by the Anti  or Antes Sarmatian tribe. In historical perspective the proto-Slavic and Armatian peoples were united politically to such an extent that Jordanes, a famous Gothic historian of the sixth century AD wrote that  there were three groups of Slavs : the Venedi, Sclavoni and the Antes[29].


Where are the Sarmatian Venedi, Sclavoni and Antes today? For we find that once the Sarmatians were conquered, "they completely disappeared from   history"[30]. But whole races do not just simply disappear! So where are they ? Antes is an Iranian name[31] and are regarded by historians as the direct ancestors of many of the Slavs today[32] . Could they be descendants of the Anzi or Anzan tribe which were , as we have previously seen, an Elamite people?  Historians note that there are clear traces of the Sarmatians - especially the Antae (or Aorsi) having settled in, and populated Poland[33]. Sulimirski remarks:


"Ancient  Sarmatian traditions survived in Poland for a long time. A belief in the Sarmatian origin of Poland was widespread among the Polish Nobility"[34].


Much evidence may also be found in ancient Polish coins and heraldry[35]. Certain authors of the early twentieth century agree that the western Slavs  descend from the Sarmatians[36]. It should be noted by the reader that as physical anthropologists identify the white Elamites as Alpine, so they classify the non-Russian Slavs of Eastern Europe as eastern Alpines. All historians agree that the Alpine peoples once dwelt  in Central Asia where the Scytho-Sarmatians arose[37]. It is of particular significance that author Sulimirski comments that:


"The Sarmatians were closely akin to the ancient Medes, Parthians and Persians"[38]


Prepare yourself for a pleasant surprise. Where might the Parthians, who once inhabited a part of ancient Persia, be today? Lempriere's Classical Dictionary  explains: "Parthini, a people of Illyricum"[39]--Illyricum is south-east Europe. Here  is a further clue to identifying the very descendants of Elam himself.  Dvornik also makes mention of how the peoples of Iran (Medes, Persians and Elamites) did not follow the other Indo-Europeans in using the symbolic name of Dieus ("worshipped sky") for their god. Instead, they substituted "cloud" for "sky" and used the cognate Deiwas (changed to "Daeva") to refer, not to  god, but a demon, hostile to him. The Slavs, maintains Dvornik, followed the Iranians in all of these respects[40]; and why should they not? For they were the literal Elamites who had previously dwelt in ancient Iran. But that is by no means all of the proof: the Slavs, he further states, "followed" the Iranians in also the types of gods they had, used the same names of the gods, and in various practices such as burial, they  emulated the Iranians. Further, they also had many Iranian words in their own vocabulary[41].


Many of the Slavs settled in Czecho-slovakia, which means "the land of the Czechs and Slovaks". When the western Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century AD, the Germans (then occupying Czechoslovakia), were led to release their 'pent-up energies' in out-migration, thus emptying the land permitting the Czechs (also known as Bohemians), Slovaks and the Hannacks  (known as the Moravians or Moavians) to settle the area[42]. It is very likely that the Slovaks descend from the Sarmatian Sclavones tribe and the Hannacks from the Hanshan or Anzan tribe of Elam[43].




The Poles or Polaks (a word which has come to mean 'men of the plains') are a fascinating people but are somewhat more difficult to identify specifically. We know that the Polani tribe united six tribes (not all Slavs) in the tenth century AD, forming the first Polish state[44]. To my knowledge, these six tribes were the Polanians (also known as Lechs), Vistulians, East Pomeranians, Mazovians, Silesians and the Kashu. Because of the German and other neo-Nordic tribes in Poland today, the Poles comprise the fairest of all the Central European Slavs. A tribe known as the Pul once inhabited Asia Minor[45], but whether they had anything to do with the Elamites and the modern Poles, one cannot say dogmatically at this time. This may be the origin of the name of the Polani tribe.


Perhaps they came from the Pillatu district of Elam[46]. Historians know that


"western Russia, before it came to be called 'white', was thus referred to as Polotian Russia, from Polock, its strongest and most advanced principality"[47].


Amongst the original Slavs in western Russia, were the Polyanians and Polotians[48]. One tribe known as the Polabians settled along the bank of the Elbe, south of Hamburg - they were definitely a Slavic Tribe[49]. But the Poljane proper were the ancestors of the Poles[50] who settled in the district which came to be known as Great Poland[51]. Are the Poles descended from Elam ? It is probable that many are. But it is just as likely that many descend from Peleg. In terms of physical anthropology, the Poles are not your typical Slav, although they are regarded as Alpine or semi - Alpine. Professor Coon believed that Poland is too blond a nation to be regarded as completely Alpine. In addition, their skin pigmentation is Nordic[52].


The word Pol or Pul may be found all over eastern Europe:


·                           Polabi region of Czechoslovakia (known also as Lake Plain)

·                           A town and bay in Yugoslavia are known as Pula or Pola

·                           Polesyer Marshland of USSR ( Pripet Marshes)

·                           The city of Polevskoy  (USSR)

·                           South-west Ukraine was know as Polovtsian

·                           A city of Belorussia was known as Polotsk

·                           Polgar in Hungary


Many other names of places bear the prefix Pol in the Soviet Union. Another Polish tribe, the Pomeranians dwell along the northern sea-board of Poland. They are a neo-Nordic people[53]. Occupying the sea-board with them are the Kashubs[54]. Geipel spells their name as Kaszuby or Cassubian[55]. Surely we have here the Kashu tribe (descendants of the Kassites) who dwelt in Elam, referred to earlier in the chapter ?! The Kashu are a blonde people. No wonder the district near which they occupied in Elam was known as Rashi[56], meaning blonde.




Further south from Poland lies Yugoslavia (sometimes spelt Jugoslavia), which means "southern Slavs". They recall their first independent state under one Stephen Nemanja (c1168-96) which was known as the Grand Zupan(chieftan) of Ruscia or Rask; that was the Medieval name of Serbia. They reached their zenith during the reign of Stephen Dusan (1331-55). But the southern slavs were a divided lot. Their lack of solidarity was due, in part, to their tribal system and divisions along clannish lines with each clan having its own chieftan or Zupan. As a result they could not resist the Ottoman conquest when the Turks became masters of the Balkans with their victory over the Serbs at Kosovo in 1389. To this day, divided by natural geographic boundaries, they perpetuate a variety of social and cultural differences. In fact, they are racially the same people but they did not become one state until this century. Also, the Catholic nations of Croatia and Slovenia regard themselves as more Central European culturally and ethnically, a view which was intensified under the Hapsburg dynasty. In contrast, the Eastern Orthodox Serbians have a closer affinity with the Russians.


The Serbs ancient enemy is the Islamic Turks, that old oppressor. Yet they and the Croats seems unable to combine against Islam and find themselves in blind raging hatred of each other. The Serbs have felt rejected by Europe since the Turkish conquest of 1389 and to this day still felt let down by the Christian nations of Central and Western Europe. To them isolation is nothing new. But their relationship with Croatia is a bitter hatred between two siblings, one who feels betrayed and rejected by the other. It is indeed a very deep conscious and subconscious national feeling. To make matters worse, their racial brothers, the Ustasha Croats, collaborated with the Nazis and Catholics in World War Two, resulting in massive massacres. Memories and bitterness will not simply go away in this region.


Several tribes dwell there, including the Herzegovinians who are taller than their fellow tribes. Note also the Slovenians in the north who "in stature, head form, and pigmentation they cannot be distinguished from the Austrians upon whose territory they touch"[57].(They number about 1.9 million persons).


The reader should note that the Elamites (also called Halam) were also known as Elymais or Elymaeans[58]. The Greeks maintained in their records that the Elimaei dwelt northwest of them in Yugoslavia. The same word was used by the ancient Greeks to refer to the Elamites![59]  Lempriere wrote: "Elimea, or Elimiotis, a district of Macedonia, or of Illyricum according to others." [60]


There we have it; a part of Elam dwell today in Yugoslavia! One wonders whether the name of Serbia derives from the Seropi or Surappi River in Elam and that the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, derives from the Zagreb mountain range in ancient Elam. Interestingly, the mountain range Dinara in Dalmatia and the Dinar currency may be connected to Mount Dinar of ancient Elam! It may be no coincidence that the fifth king of Elam was Tata and the word Tata means "Dad" in Serbian. Could all this be mere 'coincidence'? Further, Strabo[61] also has the Elimeia as dwelling in Macedonia.


The two largest tribes or nations comprising a major part of Yugoslavia are the Croats and the Serbs, who, according to Slavic history expert, Dvornik, descend from the Sarmatians, and may be traced back to southern Russia[62]. Dvornik  adds the following in a footnote :


"P.S.Sakac thinks that he discovered the name 'Croats' in Darius' inscriptions from the sixth century B.C. There an old Persian province and people are mentioned, called Harahvaitai, Harahvatis, Horohoati..."[63]


Need more proof?


Centuries ago Ammanius Marcellinus mentioned that a city arose anciently in Persia called Habroatis and a city known as Chroates[64]. Is this where the Croats originated? According to Sakac the Harahvatis were driven out of southern Persia and migrated over the Caucasus[65]. Dvornik goes on to mention that Byzantine Emperor, Constantine Porphyarogennetus, in his Book Of Ceremonies,[66] calls the Croats and Serbs "Krevatas and Sarban", who were located between Alania and Tsanaria. Sulimirski, author of The Sarmatians also makes mention of the referral of the Emperor's to the Belochrobati or White Croats who "exhibited certain Sarmatian characteristics ... [ they were ] of Iranian origin" he states.[67]


Pliny in his Natural History refers to the Chroasi dwelling with the Massagetae in southern Russia[68] while Strabo mentions the Chorasmii as also dwelling in southern Russia[69]. It should be noted that an area of south-west Poland was once known as Chrobatia, which the Croatians prpbably occupied centuries before trekking southwards[70]. Pliny also makes reference to the region of Serbi between the Azov and the Caucasus[71]. In the following century, Ptolemy, in his Geography, locates the Serboi between the lower Volga and the Caucasus[72]. Yet another ancient writer, a Latin geographer by the name of Vibius Sequestrus found the Serbs on the eastern shores of the Azov as did Pliny and describes their westward movement into Europe with some settling in Germany for a time. In the fifth century the Serbs disputed where they should settle and the tribe split up with some migrating into Germany but the majority settling in present-day Yugoslavia. They number 9.9 millions (including 2 million Albanians in Kosovo and 2 million Vojvodians in the north), the Croats 5 millions, Montenegrians 632,000, Macedonians 1.9 million and 4.4 million Bosnians, Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia-Hercegovinia.


The few in eastern Germany are still there to this day and are known as Sorbs or Sorabians! They are also known as Wends by some. But due to their Catholic religion, they havae employed an alphabet of Latin origin. An even though they are completely surrounded by Germanic peoples, they have maintained to a large extent their own customs, identity, language and literature. Their numbers are concentrated in the Spree Forest are of Lusatia between Cottbus and Lubben.




It is interesting to observe that the Elamites called the most famous mountain in their region Elwend[73]. History records that at one time the Elamites overran Babylonia and extended their rule into Palestine[74] where they named a river the Elwend, which the Greeks called Orontes[75].


One of the tribes from the Baltic region was called the Venedi, Veneti or Eneti in Latin or Wends in German. More than one tribe of people was known as Wends[76] just as more than one tribe was known as Suevi. Some think that a part of the Sarmatian Serboi which settled along the Polish border became known as the Wends. Today they are known as the Serbs with a branch settling in Yugoslavia[77]. Whether they were the original Wends it is not possible to ascertain today. In any event, historians trace the Serbs (or Sorabs as they were sometimes known) and Croats (Chrobates) from East Germany to Yugoslavia[78].


It is, however, sometimes difficult to distinguish in history between the north German Wends and the Slavic Wends. Historically, the Venedi had joined with the Sarmatian tribes called the Iazyges. Butinger's Tabula is one of the oldest sets of maps available concerning Europe (third century AD) which names the region occupied by the Sarmatians and Slavs as "Venedi Sarmatae", indicating that they had become united. This no doubt led to some confusion concerning the Wends and Veneti. Perhaps the Veneti derive from the Lake Van area or that certain Elamites passed through that region.


We do know that Strabo wrote that the Eneti had originated in Asia Minor and migrated to the Adriatic[79]:


“the ... Eneti ... were the most notable tribe of the Paphlagonians ... the Eneti disappeared and are not to be seen in Paphlagonia[80]... the Eneti first set forth from  the country of the White Syrians”[81].


Lempriere's Classical Dictionary concurs showing us an alternative spelling as Heneti[82], Perhaps they gave their name to the Heniochi Mountains in which the river Kur had its source according to Pliny[83]. The Heniochi were "a people of Asiatic Sarmatia"[84]. Historian, Hertz comments that


“The Eneti occur in Asia Minor, but as Veneti they crop up also in Italy and in the Alps. The Lake of Constance was called Lacus Venetus. Mons Venetus lies in the Pyranees”[85].


In summary, we can see that it is quite clear that the tribes of Elam settled parts of East Europe, especially southern Poland and Yugoslavia as well as other regions of East Europe.




Josephus informs us that Lud gave rise to the Lydians[86]  while the account of Herodotus shows us that they were white[87]. They lived in Asia Minor[88] with their land bounded by Phrygia, Mysia and Caria[89]. They have nothing to do, however, with the dark Ludim who descend from Mizraim who cannot be connected with the white Lydians[90]. The Lydians were known as the Luddu in Accadian[91] and as a result, writes historian Simon, "hardly anyone else but the Asiatic Lydians can be meant by 'Lud'..."[92]. While the Egyptian monuments label them as the Luden, the Assyrians called them Ludbu [93]and an ancient town in the area was known as Ludbi[94]. They joined with the Etruscans who were a certain priestly class from Chaldea with their subjects. Scholars still argue as to whether the Etruscans originated in Asia Minor or south-east Europe, the former theory having gained the predominance. What happened was that the Etruscans, fleeing Chaldea after its fall, migrated to Lydia, where we find the Ludbu. Referring to the Luden, Baker's Bible Atlas  notes that they migrated to Asia Minor after being displaced by the Assyrians[95]. Together with the Etruscans they migrated into southern Europe.


Tuscany in Italy is named after the Etruscans or Etrurians as the name is sometimes spelt. One area occupied by them in Italy was known as Alba. The Etruscans identified with the Tyrsenians or Tyrrenians of history[96]. Hertz writes that the Etruscans were known as Tusci, Tyrrheni and Tursha to the Egyptians[97] and that "in all probability there existed two distinct racial types within the Etruscans"[98]. Dr von Fange agrees with this assessment stating that one group was mongoloid or Finnic by race[99]. They may have been conquered subjects of the Etruscans. By way of an aside, it is interesting to note that Professor Sadovsky of California State University-Fullerton, has written of the many interesting similarities between the Finnic peoples and American Indians[100]. In or near Etruscan lands anciently, a city known as Atia[101] was once extant. We also find that a nation called the Rhaeti once lived in Etruria[102]. It may be no coincidence the Maoris claim to come from an island in the Pacific with the exact same name!


The Etruscans split up with the Ludbu migrating to south-east Europe, giving their name to the River Ludias. They settled in what we call Albania today, which was named after the land of Alba in Italy where they had originally settled. Langer's famous Encyclopedia of World History maintains that the Etruscans came from Lydia and that the Lydians contributed a marked amount to ancient Italian civilization[103]. Professor Coon in his Living Races of Man mentions that the Etruscan language of ancient northern Italy was from the Indo-Hittite Illyrian tongue which is today represented by the Albanian language. He feels that perhaps they came into Italy via Albania. In any event, he feels certain that they originated in Asia Minor[104].




We know that the Albanian language, a modern close relative of the Etruscan, is a branch of the great Indo-European family of languages[105]. Also, in terms of physical anthropology, the Albanians descend from the Illyrian peoples of the Dinaric branch.


They are noted for their large round head, flattened at the back[106]. Historians note that the Albanians descend from the Albanoi tribe of the Illyrians[107]. Today they are divided between the Ghegs in the north and Tosks in the south, separated roughly by the Shkumbian River. These two Albanian tribes comprise 95% of the population, but the remainder are Greeks, Romanians and Bulgarians "and, as customary in Socialist countries, are allowed to keep their language and national customs"[108].


The Ghegs and Tosks have certain differences which are apparent: they do not only differ in dress, musical and other cultural customs, but also in human biology. The Tosks have a less Dinaric head form and are generally shorter[109]. In addition, the Tosks also have the same cephalic index as their Epirotes tribe in Greece, just across the border[110]. The tribes of the Tosks are the Myzeqe, Camevia and Laberia. Laberia  may be a derivation of Lub or Lud. Dr Pilkey suggests that the Ghegs descend from the Canaanite Girgashites[111]. The tribes of the Ghegs are the Dukagjin and Maleia[112]  The Tosks look down upon the Ghegs as uncivilized; conversely, the Ghegs regard the Tosks as effeminate and mercenary[113].


Another branch of Lud may be in the Caucasus region, and known today as the Georgians. They are also an Alpine/Dinaric people and have the greatest degree of blondism for peoples of that region, other than the Ossetes[114]. It should also be noted that an ancient territory in that area was known as Lubdu or Lubdi[115]. In addition, a kingdom known as the Kingdom of Albania once existed in that region and the area was also known as Iberia. Today Albania's official name is Shqiperi, but it is probably not a derivative of Iperia or Iberia. Rather, Shqiperi means 'Land of the Eagles'.


The Albanians are also known as the Arben, Arber or Arbereshe tribes113, "Arberia being a word akin to Berber or Barber"114. Among the Berbers of North Africa today are the Kabyles or Cabyles. Contrary to the dolicocephalicy and mesocephalicy of the Berbers, the Kabyles are brachycephalic, have a white skin and there are many blondes among them115. They  are also the only white race speaking a Hamitic language116. No one really knows for sure where they came from, but historians and anthropologists do acknowledge that there have been migrations from south-east Europe to North Africa and visa versa117. Two  prophecies in Ezekiel and Jeremiah refers to a branch of the Lydians (Hebrew "Lud") dwelling in North Africa118. Another in Nahum refers to the Lubim in North Africa119 .Whether the latter refers to Lehabim or the Ludbu one cannot state either way with certainty.


Ammianus Marcellinus mentions a city of Cabyle in Thrace120 and the tribe of the Chalybes as dwelling in northern Asia Minor, near or in Armenia121. While Pliny refers to the tribe of the Cabyleti as dwelling on the banks of the Maritza in Thrace, south-east Europe122 and the Albani, Chalybes and Armeno-chalybe tribes as dwelling in or near Georgia123. In addition we had the town of Chalybon in Syria124, the Chalybs river and the Calybes tribe in Spain125. Perhaps this tribe descended from Lud too.




Lud in Albania may form part of the prophesied United States of Europe, but prophecy does not specify. However, the Bible speaks in terms of history repeating itself. Will the Elamites be doomed to repeat their history? As Solomon, the wisest man to have lived, wrote:


"The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; And that which is done, is that which shall be done: And there is no new  thing under the sun. Is there any thing whereof it may be said, 'see, this is new?' it has been already of old time , which was before us."126


In World War One Croatia, Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria were allies of Germany. In World War Two Hungary, Roumania, Croatia, Montenegro and Albania were allies of the Axis forces. Will history repeat itself? Will the Slavic nations of South-eastern Europe be involved in a United States of Europe? Bible prophecy may indicate such:


"And it shall come to pas in that day, that the Lord shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His People [Israel], which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush [yes, India will be involved in enslaving the Israelites in its region of the world] and from Elam [East Europe], and from Shinar [modern Babylon - the United States of Europe], and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea [Japan, South America]"127 .


A part of Elam, it would seem, will be joined with Europe and be involved in the future captivity of the House of Israel. These may be those of south-east Europe who were allied with Germany in the two World Wars and which were also within the Roman Empire. It is these which are described by Ezekiel as being in the service of the king of Babylon (Europe) when it invades Egypt128. Isaiah allies them with the peoples of Kir who were anciently in Anatolia but who are now in Europe129. In other prophecies, however, Elam is allied with the Medes against Babylon. From this it would appear that there will be a break-up of the European combine and that certain nations of Elam such as Poland and Czechoslovakia may align with the nations of the east during the Tribulation:


"Go up, O Elam [East Europe] : besiege, O Media [Ukraine, Russia]: All the sighing thereof have I made to cease... 'Babylon is fallen, is fallen [the fall of Europe]' "130 .


And through the prophet Jeremiah, God Almighty thunders a blistering warning to the East Europeans :


" 'Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four quarters of heaven [war], and will scatter them toward all those winds... ' '...And I will bring evil upon them, in my fierce anger...and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them... 'But it shall come to pass on the latter days , that I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the Lord' "131.


Watch out Eastern Europe. God says what He means and means what He says! Already we can see that the Balkans are splitting down the middle: a part inexorably tending toward Russia and part toward Germany. How like the ancient double-headed eagle symbol so prominent in the region. It is the official crest of Albania and of Serbia and Montenegro. The long history of this creature goes back to Rome where the single-headed variety symbolised the one Roman State. But when, in the fourth century, Emperor Constantine devolved the eastern half of the Empire to another emperor and another capital was established at Constantinople (modern Istanbul), the Christian church was also involved in the administration.


Thus metaphorically, there was a double-headed eagle, looking both west and east. Again, metaphorically, the neck ran down the Balkans: to its east was Serbia and on its west lay Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia. Later, the Turks invaded and devoured the eastern Roman Empire. Even after the Turks were driven out of the region, the impact of their presence in reinforcing the divisions and introducing another religion to the already awkward relationships, remain to this day.






Dvornik,F (1956)                      The Slavs. Their Early History and Civilization. American Academy

                                               of Arts and Sciences, Boston, USA.

Fernandez-Armesto,F (1994)      Guide to the Peoples of Europe. Times Books, London.

Hinz,W (1972)                         The Lost World Of Elam. Sidgwick & Jackson, London.

Sulimirski,T (1970)                   The Sarmatians. Thames & Hudson, London, UK.





CHART 2:  Abraham's Ancestory and Descendants











                                                                                    Terah: (had 3 sons and 1 daughter): 





                                                                                                   (Terah's daughter by another wife).


              Abraham's sons by his various wives and concubines: 

              1.  Sarai:                                                                                                   


                                                Jacob (Israel):           

2 sons                                       


                                                                       5 sons                                           


              2.  Hagar:                                                                                                 


                                                                       12 sons                                           


              3.  Keturah  (6 sons):                                                                              

















              4.  Various concubines e.g. Sussanna (referred to in extra-Biblical sources) 








In this chapter we discuss the origins of the White Russians, Lithuanians and Latvians. Various other nations will be touched upon.




The descendants of Abraham through Keturah settled in the region of the Caucasus, both north and south of the mountain range[116]. After multiplying greatly, they came pouring down into Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia, being known at that time as the Hurrians[117]. One branch of Hurrians became known as the Mitanni and their rulers the Maryanni. They were evidently named after their forefather Midian. Dr Cowley suggests that these Mitanni are direct  descendants of Midian[118].


The Mitanni were of the Aryan branch of the Indo-Europeans[119] with their fair skin and often-times blonde hair. The bust of Queen Nefertete (a Midianitess) and the wife of Pharoah Ammonhotep, reveal her features and facial type as clearly Nordic[120]. They clearly invoked the actual gods of the Aryans and used their Vedic  names. It may be significant that the first god they invoked is the Vedic Sun-god, Mitra or Mithra! In so many ways they were quite similar to their neighbours  the Hittites[121]. Dr Gayre writes :


"The evidence for the connection with Aryans rests not only on the evidence we have given, and their location, but on such things as god-names. Thus they had Teshup, who is identical with Tarku, Huthor [emphasis mine] of Anatolia. The nearby Hittite military aristocracy had Mitra, Uranna and Nasaatiia (Mitra, Varunna, Indra and Nasatya). One of the Mitannian tribes was called the Kharri, and some think this is Arya"[122].


Many Mitanni settled for a time in Asshur[123] which was merely the linking up of "contiguous" peoples[124] as their military ruling classes were related[125]. Their royal names reflected their worship of the Aryan deities and they possessed specialised knowledge of horse-breeding like their relatives in north-west India[126]. One of their gods was Teshub, the god of battles, with his thunderbolt in his hand; he was later called Thor in Europe. Like the Hittites, their relatives, they were a very warlike people[127].


What became of these mysterious Mitanni after their kingdom fell c 1400 BC? Haddon comments


"The 'Aryans' of Mitanni were called by the Greeks Mattienoi; they are possibly the ancestors of the modern Kurds"[128].


Indeed, the Kurds may well be the mixed remnant of the Mittanni and Hittites. But what of those which did not mix? Of them Field notes that "nothing more is heard of them; they disappear in unknown India"[129].




A famous prophecy in the book of Ezekiel speaks of a ruling class (or formerly ruling class) over the Great Russians (Meschech and Tubal) :


"Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meschech and Tubal"[130].


The marginal note for this verse reads "or, Prince of the chief". The translaters derived this from Jerome's Latin Vulgate which read "Principem Capitis", because the Hebrew word for "chief prince" is "Ro'sh"[131], meaning "head" or "leader"[132]. The Septuagint rendering is "Ruler of Rosh".


Who is Rosh? Where is Rosh? And what has Rosh to do with the vanished Mitanni? Everything!


You may search the scriptures from one end to the other, and you will find only one Rosh mentioned, and that is in Genesis. He was a son of Benjamin[133], one of ten brothers. When we come to the book of Numbers, only five are mentioned[134]. Later, in I Chronicles, only three are referred to[135]. Why? Either because their line had become extinct[136], or because they had migrated outwards as they were, by instinct, a pioneering, adventurous and exploring people. The tribe of Benjamin, or rather a part of it, was possibly in Asia Minor at some stage[137] and if so, probably dwelt with the Mitanni. Both because the Mitanni were blond and/or because Rosh lived with them, the Kingdom of Mitanni became known as the "land of Rashu"[138], Rash or Rosh meaning "blond". Also, nearby dwelt the Urartians, descendants of Arphaxad. Their last great dynast was RusaII who built great cities and huge defences. He established the religious centre and fortress of Rusai-urau.tur or Rusa-patari which means 'the small city of Rusa'[139]. Where are the Rosh today?


Herodotus wrote that the Matienians from the land of Rosh were with the peoples of Tubal and Meschech[140]; while Pliny wrote of the Matiani as moving into southern Russia over the Caucasus[141]. Dr Gesenius in his Hebrew and English Lexicon wrote that


"Rosh was a designation for the tribes then north of the Taurus Mountains, dwelling in the neighbourhood of the Volga"[142].


He concluded that in this name we have the first trace, historically, of the Rus or Russian state.




Bishop Lowth of England wrote in 1710 that Rosh should be taken as a proper name in Ezekiel from whence the Russians derive their name.[143]


I feel that it is important to quote at length from another source to cement this important concept in the reader's mind. This time from an incredible author during the early years of this century, G.G. Rupert, who wrote the famous Yellow Peril. In it he quotes from Dr Daniel Schenkel's Bibel-Lexicon:


"Rosh in Hesek 38:2, 3; 39:1, is the name of a people of the north, named along with Meschech and Tubal, and all together as subject people of Gog...Rosh as a proper name for a people does not , to be sure, occur anywhere else before the tenth century A.D., when it is found in use by Byzantine and oriental writers; but the statements concerning the same people, dwelling in northern Taurus, as also towards the Muscovite Mountains, or, as some other authors maintain, on the Taurian Peninsula (Crimea), and still further to the north along the Volga, - agree in a most striking manner with the combination of Rosh, Meschech, and Tubal...Rosh is the oldest historical name to designate the tribal peoples of the Russians of history, a combination which already Bocharat has made , and for whom as a connecting link he has taken the Roxolani or Roxalani mentioned by Pliny (62-110), Ptolemy, and others, taking it for granted that the latter name arose from a connection of the Rox-Rosh with the Alani"[144].


The German scholar, Dr Keil, after very thorough grammatical analysis of Ezekiel 38:2-3 states that the work translated "chief prince" should be correctly rendered as a proper name, Rosh. He says, that many Arabic and Byzantine writers frequently mention a people which they call Ros or Rus dwelling among certain Scythian tribes in the country of Taurus[145]. Another researcher, Victor Kachur, in one of his works, makes mention of the Rusi who were in southern Russia; they claimed that many of their tribe were living with the Cimmerian Scythians[146]. Interestingly, Bowle maintains that although the name "Rus" is a Norse word, there is enough evidence that it is of Iranian origin[147]. The Mitanni-Rosh dwelt on the border of ancient Iran and spoke the Aryan/Iranian tongue.


What does "Rus" mean? Blond![148] (an alternative hypothesis suggests that the word may be of Scandinavian origin, meaning 'raft'). Interestingly, the White Russians or Byelorussians claimed that Ross or Russ was their ancestor[149] . Byelorussia, also spelt Belorussia and called White Ruthenia, is situated close to the Baltic Sea (see any modern map of the Soviet Union). According to Lubachko, the name of Belaia Rus or Belarus derives from the fact that they are a people with light-coloured hair[150].


Cross lists their tribes as the Polyanians, Derevlians, the peoples of Novgorod, Severians, Dregovichians, Polotians and the "Buzhians, who live along the river Bug"[151]. But Geipel lists them as Severjane, Radimichi, Krivitchi, Polotchane and Dregovitchi[152]. The tribe of the Nervy may be their ancestors[153].




The true origins of Russia may be told in the Chronicle of Nestor or Russian Primary Chronicle which was written in Perchersky Monastry of Kiev toward the end of the 11th century, placing the following event in 862 AD. Of these tribes it says:


"Among them there was no law, and tribe rose up against tribe, and there were feuds among them, and they began to fight each other. And they spoke among themselves : 'We must find a prince who will rule justly over us'. And they crossed the sea to the Varangians, the Rus, for the Varangians were called Rus, as others are called Swedes, others Norwegians and Anglians, others Gotlanders, thus also these men. The Chaudes, Slovenes, Krivichi and Vesses said to these Rus, 'Our land is great and rich, yet there is no order in it. Come therefore and rule over us' "[154].


They knew that the peoples of north-west Europe possessed leadership and administrative qualities! Who could their ancestors be ? Professor Hannay explains that the tribe of Benjamin, or a part of it, migrated into Scandinavia[155]! And a son of Benjamin was Rosh, as was mentioned earlier. No wonder that area of Russia south of the Baltic Sea became known as "Swithoid the Great" or "Sweden the Great". Thus it may have been the Vikings who gave the name of Rus to the White Russians[156].


While western scholars accept this as the origins of the Rus, Soviet scholars contend that the Rus were Slavs from the southern steppes[157]. Both are probably correct as we have seen for there is no evidence of a tribe from Scandinavia called Ros or Rus. But a tribe of the Antes was known as the 'Ros' and later modified to 'Rus' which resided along the river Ros, a tributary of the Dnieper in the southern Ukraine, just north of the Black Sea[158].


The Varangian Vikings thus created the first Rus state with the capital at Kiev. They went on wild raids further south not unlike that of their brethren into Britain and France during the same general period of history[159]. Dr V.Thomsen, writing in The Relations between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia, and the Origin of the Russian State  relates how the Russ became familiar to Constantinople as they (the Viking-Varangian-Rus) threatened that city[160]. The ninth chapter of the work by Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (written c 950AD) is titled About the Rhos who came from Russia to Constantinople with their boats. He gives the names of the rapids through which the Rhos came. The 'Russian' words are pure Scandinavian[161]. In fact, all the Russian royal family of the House of Rurik in the early chronicles have pure Scandinavian names. The Russian Primary Chronicle records Rurik as the first mysterious ruler of Russia. He was succeeded by his som Oleg who rapidly expanded the kingdom southwards - it was he who forced a treaty from the Byzantine Empire in 907AD.


After they had completed their work in White Russia, the mass of these eastern Vikings later returned to Scandinavia[162], their royal house remaining and probably intermarrying with the White Russians.


When the Mongols sacked Moscow and swarmed into western Russia, they took back captive with them tens of thousands of White Russians. This accounts for their demise, which has been accentuated in the Twentieth Century; not only were tens of thousands slaughtered during the Revolution of 1917, not only did Stalin murder even more during the great purges of the 1930s, but it had been a Communist policy to Slavinise the neo-Nordic peoples of the Baltic region[163].


These fair White Russians, who are much fairer than the Great Russians[164], have now gained independence from Russia. However, they, together with the Balts, comprise a mere 10 millions or 6% of the total Soviet population[165]. A tragic predicament for a once great people who should have much greater numbers.


Prophetically, nothing much is said about Midian, being a small portion of the eastern hordes. Perhaps the hordes in the book of Judges where they are allies of the Amalekites (Gog), type the future eastern hordes[166]. And through Habbakuk, God says that the Midianites (the Mitanni) will tremble at Him when He begins to intervene in world affairs[167].




Midian's brother was Medan. Who could be descended from him today?


Historically, the Medanites dwelt alongside the Mitanni and they formed a kingdom in the tenth and ninth centuries BC. It is for this reason that historians call the Mitanni the "early Medes". The empire of the Medanites or Medes is often referred to in textbooks as the Amadai-Mada-Medes empire[168]. The Amadai were descendants of Madai who were subject to the Medes, the ruling class of the Empire. The tribes of the Median empire were: the Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii and Magi. Some were descended from Medan, others from Madai.


What was the physical type of the Medes? All historians mention that the earliest tribes of the Medians "belonged to the Aryan stock"[169] and as such were an Indo-European people[170] and  they formed a ruling class over the Madai[171]. This Mede ruling class called themselves Arioi or Arii[172], meaning Aryan.


The Medes were more numerous and important than the Persians who were a Median tribe who broke away[173]. The Persians were first in the central-west areas of Persia then later in the south-west [174]. From what can be gathered by historians, these Aryan Persians originated in a far away land called Airyanem-Vaejo and came into the Iranian plateau from southern Russia[175]. They were basically pastoral and possessed watch-dogs, sheep, oxen and horses. They travelled in wagons which had axles and wheels. In general, researchers trace the Indo-Aryans to the Austro-Hungarian plains or in southwest Russia[176]. I agree that that is where many of them migrated to, but their homeland prior to that would have been in the Middle East. Professor Hannay throws further light on the original Persians:


"the present inhabitants of Persia...succeeeded to territories which were abandoned...and to a name imprinted thereon by the ...White Race which then disappeared. These incomers, who now go by the name of Farsiyan...are doubtless the descendants of the Non-Persian subject-populations of antiquity, are not racially identical with the Persians who vanished" [177].


Professor Sayce, writing in his famous Races of the Old Testament, agrees that the original Persians belonged to the fair-skinned, Nordic division of the White Race:


"The physical type of the country-men of Darius and Xerxes, like that of their modern descendants, was Aryan in all of its traits. Travellers still speak of the fair-complexioned, blue-eyed populations met with in the Persian highlands...The Persians were at the outset a Median tribe"[178].


They called themselves Airya (Aryan). Darius the Great on his tomb calls himself "an Arya of Arya(n) descent". Xerxes called himslf "harri", meaning "noble" or Aryan. Today Persia is known as Iran or Aryan, but these people are not the original Persians or Medes as we have seen. Professor Sayce affirms that the original Persians were a tribe who were originally with the Medes and who left them and had established themselves next to the Elamites[179]. He further states that


"The Medes proper were an Aryan people, who claimed relationship to the Aryans of Northern India and the Aryan populations of Europe, and one of the tribes belonging to them was that of the Persians...But in classical times the older inhabitants of the regions into which the Medes migrated were classed along with them under the general title of 'Medes' "[180].


According to Herodotus, the Persian tribes were : the Pasargadae (Persian Goths?), Maraphii, Maspii (descendants of Mash?), Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germani (certain Hittites), Dai, Mardi (a tribe of Elamites), Dropci and Sagartii[181]. They called the land which they settled in southern Iran as Parsuash. The same territory is still called Farsistan to this day. Their chief towns were Persepolis and Parsagarda after which the Hebrews called the Persians "Parsa"[182] and the Euphrates River "Perath" or "Peres" - "River of the Persians". Of course the name originated from a geographical region in southern Iran which was called "Persis", the Greek form of the old Persian "Parsa". After the Assyrian Empire collapsed, the Persians annexed Elam. They became closely identified with the Elamites; the Persian kings even ruled from the Anshan district of Susa in Elam. It seems quite plausible that the true, original Persians, descend from Medan and/or two sons of Midian, Ephah and Epher. These may be the Apharsites mentioned by Ezra[183] and whom Bullinger and others reckon as Persians[184].


The peoples in Persia today are mixed. The fairest Persians are those living around Persepolis who are slender, have chestnut hair and are fairer than the surrounding Persians and there are still a few blondes among them[185]. In north-west Iran many blondes persist[186] and many still have features akin to Europeans[187]. None have kept themselves separate and they have heavily intermarried with the Semites[188] and others.


However, the original inhabitants of the area were, of course, the self-same Medo-Persians referred to in the book of Daniel which conquered Babylon in October 539 BC while its king Nabonidus was away campaigning in Arabia at the time and it took some time to capture him[189] (Belshazzar was second in line after Nabonidus and Daniel was the third ruler; see Daniel 5:1, 7, 16, 30). The Bible predicts that the coming Babylon/US of Europe would begin to arise 2520 years after the subjugation of Babylon. In this light, Time magazine had an amazing front cover in a mid-1990 edition[190]; in fact, 90% of this edition was devoted to German reunification! The cover depicted the two Germanies growing together out of a truncated tree stump - Daniel himself likened it to such[191]. Each of the Germanies represented the leading powers of Western and Eastern Europe (minus Russia) and it is a united Germany which is leading the two halves of Europe toward eventual unification in the prophesied National European Socialist Empire. This amazing process sees the European nations overtaking the Israelitish nations in financial, economic, political and even military power and would culminate in the Great Tribulation when Israel's blindness to her national origins will be lifted.




Most people have heard of the Brahmin caste of India. Who are they? In India the Persians were known as Parsees, from whom descend, in part, the Brahmins who were also the highest cast. Brahmin means "son of Abraham"!


The Brahmins, although now substantially mixed, are fairer than the average Indian, tall, slim and some with red hair - even somewhat Nordic in appearance[192]. They ruled India for centuries despite invading armies, religions and dynasties[193]. They collected their laws and customs in the Code of Manu, setting the law into three branches : domestic and civil rights and duties; administration and justice; and religious purifications and penance. They kept the castes apart, forbidding intermarriage[194]. They did not adhere strictly to this policy and no pure Brahmin may be found today.


Descended in part from Abraham through Medan, they, via their amazing work, spread the Code of Manu and became the civilizers of ancient India[195].




When the peoples of Madai migrated to the Ukraine, the unmixed Medanites migrated with them and dwelt in close proximity to Madai and Midian as they had in the Middle East in previous centuries. Pliny refers to these Medanites as the tribe of Medi which dwelt north-west of the Black Sea[196]. Of Thrace he writes


"the Medi, who live on the right bank of the river Struna right up to the Bisaltae abovementioned, and the Digerri and the various sections of the Bessi on the left bank, as far as the river Mesto"[197].


Herodotus mentions that the Medes were in upper Asia or inner Asia, north of the Caucasian Mountains[198] and Strabo stated that the Medi were a people of Thrace bordering on the Illyrian Thunatae (ie western Ukrainian/Rumanian area)[199].


Broadly speaking, the Medi dwelt in western Russsia near and in Rumania. Lempriere's Classical Dictionary also makes reference to them, but as the "Medobythini, a people of Thrace"[200]. Today one branch of these Medo-Persian people is known as the Buzhians or Volhynians and they dwell in north-west Ukraine. Physical anthropologists tell us that like the White Russians, they are shorter than the Ukrainians and have a high percentage of blondes. Overall, their eyes are a light-brown in colour, but many have blue eyes. They are fair-skinned[201] and like their mixed remnants in Iran, their headform is brachycephalic[202] and their closest genetic relatives are the White Russians[203]. It should also be noted that a river in the Baltic region was known as the Persante[204] which may be a direct derivation of Persian.


As they migrated into Russia out of the Middle East, their language gradually changed. D'iakonov notes


"The fate of the Iranian dialects is ... very vague ... in the first millenium B.C.E. the language of the Ukrainian Scythians was still understandable for the ancient Medians"[205].


Such a revelation. His statement is obviously self-explanatory. We have seen historical reference to the Medi and Medo tribes in the western Ukraine as being descended from the original Medes. One of the tribes of the Medes was Budii as we have seen. Herodotus refers to the Budini (or Boudini) nation he visited near the Borysthenes[206]. They dwelt among the Sauromatai. Soviet historian Vakar writes that the word Budini is a variation of Vudini, Veneti, Venedi or Vendi and that  authorities feel that they may well be the most ancient of Slavic tribes and remote ancestors of the Belorussians[207].


The Volhynians are often included with the Belorussians by historians. Let us also remember that the original name of the Volhynians was Buzhians[208]. One of the tribes of the Persians was Busae, as we saw previously. Surely, then, the blonde, neo-Nordic Volhynians descend from the Medo-Persians? Another tribe among the Medo-Persians was the Sagartii. In southern Russia anciently dwelt the Saghadu[209] or Sagetai[210]. Various other people in that area were called Persae and Parthi by Roman writers[211]. With them were the Dahi tribe, no doubt descended from the Dai tribe of Persia.


Another tribe of ancient Persia was the Derusiaei - could this have been the forerunner of the name Russians? A district of Medo-Persia was named Gedrosia [212]  and later we find the Gerus or Gerrhus river in Georgia flowing into the Caspian Sea[213]. Another river with the same name was found in Scythia[214]. Also, a city of Gerusa once existed in Georgia[215].




The eastern and central Rumanians are descended from the Daci[216] which are probably descended from the Daae, Dahae or Dai tribe, who, according to Lempriere, were "a people of Scythia, who dwelt on the borders of the Caspian sea in what is now Dahistan"[217]. On the following page he refers to the "Dai, a nation of Persia"[218]. The Rumanians touch upon the Volhynians to their north and to their east dwell the Ukrainians.


Professor Hannay believes that the name of the Rumanian Moldavians appears to be traceable to the Dacians, once known as Dakhan, Daghan, Dahi[219] or Davi[220]. However, for some reason, he believes them to be descended of the Kassi hill tribe of Anshan[221]. He writes that a tribe called the Daaians was referred to by Herodotus as being a Persian tribe[222] and later known as the Dahae of Daghestan in Hyrcania[223]. In a footnote he states that the Daaians were originally one with the Kassi of Elam. Further on in his book he states that the Russian province of Daghestan marks their movement through the area[224].


Pliny also makes reference to them[225]. Personally, I feel that the Moldavians are descended from the Dai tribe of Medan, but the western Rumanians (Vlachs or Wallachians) are possibly descended from the 240,000 Romans who settled there[226] and who gave Rumania (or Romania) her name and Latin/Romance tongue, an anomaly among the Slavic nations[227]. Many of these Romans fled back westwards before the Goths[228] and this group is a minority in Rumania today.




From whom do the Latvians (Letts) and Lithuanians descend? Racially, they are related to the North Germans to their west and Byelorussians and Volhynians  (Buzhians) in the south. Thus we must look at the names of the descendants of Abraham through Keturah. Here we find a grandson of Abraham and son of Dedan with the name of Letushim[229], father of the Letts. It is most likely that they dwelt either with Asshurim (the Hittites) or Midian (the Mitanni). Thus it should come as no surprise to us if the Lithuanians and Latvians eventually break completely from the orbit of Russia and confederate with the coming German-led United States of Europe.


In any event, they originally dwelt in that region and descended down from the area to the north of Lake Van, from the district of Kuro-Araxes[230] "ur" meaning light or white (skinned). This appellation was given to Asia Minor with both itself and the Hittite colonies in northern Syria named "Kur"[231]. Syria was called Kuru or Kura. These Hittites who fled to north-west India were called "Kuru" or "Krivi" in the Vedas[232].


Historically the Kurus were the leading Aryan tribe in the war of partition of Gangetic India. They state in their tradition that they were driven forth from their homeland in Kuru[233], but few historians trace them back to Asia Minor and few realize that the great migration to Gangetic India is called Kuru-Panchala in the Vedas[234]. Kur means, or came to mean, mountain land[235].


Those who remained in Asia Minor mixed with the other races known as the Kurds and their land is known as Kurdistan[236]. About half of them still possess blue eyes[237] and there persists a few blondes and red-heads among both them and the Afghans[238]. As one travels eastwards, their head shape changes and they become rounder (brachycephalic) like the Irano-Afghan peoples, as well as a deepening pigmentation of their skin[239]. Because they bear certain physical characteristics in comon with the peoples of northern Europe, they are sometimes called proto-Nordic[240].


The Kurds have been oft mentioned in the news media due to their efforts to survive the onslaught of the governments in the region, particularly the Iraqis. It is estimated that at least 3,000 Kurdish villages were razed during the 1980s in an all out effort to deprive the guerillas of their support in the countryside - this has led to their traditional social structures and tribal loyalties being undermined. The attempts to force them to assimilate Arabic culture has been terribly cruel. Yet much of their attachment to their structures remains which is due, in part, to their amazing ancient lineage. They have probably, by all accounts, remained in the same general locaton, longer than any other race on earth. Persian epic poems record the Kurdish tribes of the Babans, Habadanis, Bokhtis, Mihranis and Mukris in the 5th century BC.


Taylor, writing in his work, Environment and Nation, claims that the Kurds have the same origin as the Medes[241]. And von Luschan writes


"I might be allowed to sugest that the Kurds, Amorites of the Bible [like some writers he probably means the Amaraeans], the Mitanni ... and the Tamehu of the old Egyptian texts, are, if not identical, at east somehow related to one another. About 1500 BC or earlier, there seems to have begun a migration of northern men [Aryans] to Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Egypt, and India"[242].


Researchers Hazhir Teimourian and Philip Howard state that they are the original Aryans and great-grandfathers of all Indo-Europeans[243]. I have before me an excellent article "The Poetry of Kurdistan", published in The World and I , August 1991[244]. Photographs contained in this article indicate that there are clearly several physical anthropological types among them, ranging from very swarthy peoples to some which can barely be distinguished from north west Europeans! Today they number some 25 millions, stretching across several nations (Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria and Armenia). A few are even found in far away Turkmenia near the city of Ashkhabad, to the east of the Caspian Sea as well as in Baluchistan in the extreme east of Iran near the border with Afghanistan! The same article mentions their close relationship to the original Medes and Persians and that they have mixed to a large degree with other nations round about. Given the facts presented, it is most likely that the Kurds represent the mixed remnants of some of these peoples which did not migrate out of the region[245].




According to Indian tradition, Yima placed a large colony of people in Lithuania who had followed him from northwest India[246]. Some of these were called Assura, descendants, no doubt, of Asshurim.


With them came the Kurus of northern India, the same Kurs or Kuras who had fled Asia Minor. Today the Lithuanians (Livs) and Latvians (Letts) are still known as the Kurs or Kurgans. They have named their land as Kurland, Courland or Curonia (Latvian "Kurzerne") after the Latvian tribe of Kuri (Cori or Kursi). The Grand Duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, was also named after them as is the southwestern coastal strip of Latvia which is still known as Kurland (and sometimes as Latgale or Lettgallen).


What evidence is there that they migrated from northwest India? Plenty of evidence does exist, but unfortunately, many historians overlook them and infer only to the remote possibility of their origins in Asia Minor or India. In the first instance, we have the strange occurrence of two villages in Latvia, adjacent to each other, called Indra and Dagda, named after two leading deities[247]. Indra itself preserves the name of the Indian storm god[248]. Further, linguists know that


"Lithuanian, among European languages, has the best claim to represent the primitive [Aryan] speech. The Teutonic languages...have lost many of the old inflexions which have been preserved in the Slavo-Lettic languages, and more especially Lithuanian"[249].


To this day Lettish and Lithuanian retain all the Sanskrit reflections. They have forty percent to sixty percent of words originating with the Sanskrit and the gods of both nations were Ayran deities from northwest India[250]. As a result, linguists are very much aware that the Lithuanian tongue is so ancient that, in many repects, even the Vedic Sanskrit looks rather modern in comparison! Thus, the Lithuanian speech area is a major criterion to aid historians in tracing the origins of the Indo-Europeans[251].


Trubacev, an expert in Baltic languages, mentions that there are a great many similarities between Baltic and Anatolian languages and place names : Kavvoc, a city in Caria and Kaunas in Lithuanian, and various other cities on the Black Sea coast and the name of a lake:


"Examples of Baltic correspondences in Asia Minor and in Thracia can be multiplied by referring to...important parallels...The quoted terms encompass not only Troas and Bithynia but also Caria"[252].


Several Hindu customs were apparent in Lithuania until the thirteenth or fourteenth century. For example the wife had to follow her deceased husband to death, according  to Gimbutas, author of The Balts . He also mentions that the incredible similarities between the Lithuanian tongue and Sanskrit are, as he put it, "curious"[253]. It is apparent to many that their language is the closest to primitive Sanskrit than any other European tongue[254].


Further, Bilmanis who wrote A History of Latvia, mentions how very close to the Indian mythology and sun-worship the Latvian religion was[255]. He concludes that the Latvians probably originated in far away India or Persia. Here is one historian who is brave enough to face this reality head-on (an excellent short summary of their history is found in Carleton Coon's Races of Europe, pp 360-363).




The Balts are sometimes referred to as a hybrid cross between an Alpine and Nordic sub-race, with perhaps some Mongoloid infusion. It is now admitted that the Mongoloid infusion postulation is a myth and that they are most definitely a type which is described as Alpine Nordic[256]. John Baker in his fascinating book, Race, asserts that they are not a mix, but rather simply a different sub-race[257].


Physically, the Latvians and Lithuanians are very closely related[258] ; together with the Estonians (Ests), they form the East Baltique or East Baltic group. They are also related to the White Russians (Midian) in the south and East Prussians (known also as the Old Prussians and West Baltics. Ie the Asshurim). There are many dolicocephalic and brachycephalic variations among them and they often have a broad angular face and a stub-nose[259]. And like many of the Hittites and Mitanni their hair is flaxen blonde (the average Nordic blonde is platinum or golden or a range between that)[260].


Blonde hair and blue eyes predominate. The Latvians are 99% blondes and 88% blue eyes[261]. The Latvians and Lithuanians differ little from each other: the Lithuanians on the whole are slightly shorter than the Letts, but are slightly broader. Their bodily hair is slightly less that the Letts as well. Johnston aptly describes the physical attributes of these descendants of Abraham:


"As a race the Lithuanians preserve some of the primitive Aryan characters - tall and shapely figures, oval face, long thin nose, blue eyes, thin lips, white skin. They are thus less akin to the Alpine Slavs than to the northern Teutons"[262].


Today there are only 1.7 million Latvians and 2.8 million Lithuanians.


In some ways the Estonians are similar to the Byelorusians and thus may be related to the east Prussians[263]. All we know with certainty is that they came from a region to the east of the Urals and it seems most likely that they are related to the Finnic peoples. They number a mere 1.1 millions today. They may well be descendants of Riphath (this will be discussed more fully in a forthcoming booklet).




Related to the Estonians, whether closely or distantly, it is not known, are the Hungarians, also an East Baltique people with Dinarid strains in the west[264] plus a little Slavic infusion on the edges. Some thought that they were originally a Mongoloid people who became westernised through intermarriage. This theory is now rejected. They were one of the nations comprising the Huns and were Mongoloid in certain aspects of lifestyle, but certainly not by race[265]. However, today there is a tiny Mongoloid enclave in Hungary called the Pussta[266], but the majority of Hungarians are not descended from them. It seems likely that the Pussta are descended from the Avars, a Mongoloid people who settled in Hungary at one stage[267]. It is most interesting that the Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages[268] as did the Sumerian tongue[269], yet both the Hungarians and post-flood neo-Sumerians (there was a pre-flood culture also known as Sumerian) were not Turkics (Turanids)[270]. Writing of the Sumerians, Williams, an historian, writes that they were an Indo European race and that attempts have been made to connect them with the Ugro-Finnish branch of the Ural-Altaic family[271].


Also of interest is that these post-flood neo-Sumerians were great civilizers and were associated with the Elamites and had a similar culture to them[272]. Could the Hungarians be descended from the neo-Sumerians? In this light, nineteenth century Hungarian romantic historian Count Bertholdi, who became Foreign Minister of Austro-Hungary, traced strong parallels between the modern Hungarians and the Sumerians.


One Hungarian tradition is that they descend from Nimrod, but this is not possible due to their Caucasion race and Nimrod's Hamitic origins[273]. Tradition also traces them to a Persian province of Evilath while others attempt to identify Evilath with the city of Eiulath or Edessa (Urfa)[274]. Either way, they definitely are traceable to the Middle East.


One descendant of Dedan, Leummim, I still have not found, but they should be in the same general area as their brethren. It is only a matter of time before they, too, will be discovered. Similarly with Ishbak. Zimran may be the neo-Nordic element which anthropologists have noted are scattered throughout eastern Europe. A prophecy in Jeremiah appears to suggest such a possiblility[275].


The final descendant of Keturah which we have yet to investigate is Shuah, which we shall find is also very difficult to trace. But let us attempt to do so. Bildad the Shuhite was from this tribe[276]. We find that in ancient Assyria there was a district named Suhu on the right hand bank of the Euphrates[277]. In addition, there was a district in Anatolia known as Isua during the neo-Assyrian period (c700 BC)[278].


It is possible that they migrated into Europe with the Assyrians for Lempriere's Classical Dictionary mentions the "Suardones, a people of Germany"[279]. These may be the Suarines identified by Tacitus as dwelling on the north-east coast of Germany.






Elliott,DM (1993)                 "The Origin of Russia", The Testimony. May: 175-178

Gimbutas,M (1963)              The Balts. Frederick & Praeger Publishers, New York.

Kalyanaraman,A (1969)       Arayatarangini. The Saga of the Indo-Aryans (2 vols). Asia          Pub.House,       London.

Wiseman,DJ (1973)             Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford University Press.

Yamauchi,EM (1990)         Persia and the Bible. Baker Book House, Michigan.






Chart 3. Abraham's north-east European Descendants






                                               Jacob   (Israelites)

                                                Esau    Turkics of Central Asia and western Turkey


                        Ishmael           Original Arabs, scattered in Middle East (Semites).


                        Zimran             Scattered in East Europe ?



                                   Sheba              Swabian Germans                  


                                                            Asshurrim        Central West & East Germans, Prussians

                                                Letushim         Latvians, Lithuanians  

                                                Leumim           Estonians and certain Finns    


                        Medan             Volhynians                                           

                        Midian             White Russians (Byelorussians)                     

                        Ishbak             ?                                                           

                        Shuah              Suadines of Northern Germany                       

Nahor                         Naharvali of North-east Austria                      

Haran:                        Heruli of Italy                                      

            Lot                  Jordanians, now extensively mixed with the Arabs







In the book of Revelation, a great horde of peoples is recorded, collectively called the "Kings of the East". The Greek is "Anatoles heliou" literally translated as "rising sun"[280] composed of two hundred million troops[281] seen invading Europe and the Middle East. Who will compose these eastern and northern armies also referred to in Daniel chapter 11?[282]




The prophet Isaiah also referred to them:


"The noise of a multitude of mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of Nations gathered together: the Lord of hosts mustereth the host of the battle...Behold, I will stir up the Medes, against them [the Chaldeans]..."[283]


"Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof, have I made to cease...'Babylon is fallen, is fallen' "[284]


Jeremiah also predicted the downfall of modern Babylon at the hands of these northern forces:


"For, lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great Nations from the North country...Behold, a people shall come from the North, and a great nation, and many kings shall be raised up, from the coasts of the earth.


They shall hold the bow and the lance : they are cruel, and will not show mercy: their voice shall roar like the sea, and they shall ride upon horses"[285]


"...the Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes : for his device is  against Babylon... together against her the kingdoms  of Ararat [Georgia, Armenia between the Black and Caspian Seas in Russia], Minni [anciently the northern frontier of the Medes] and Aschkenaz [the descendants of Gomer in south-east Asia]..."[286].


We know that initially Russia will be firm allies with German-led Europe[287]. Ezekiel equates Babylon/Chaldea with Tyre; the peoples of Tyre are in southern Italy and Sicily, but symbolically it applies to the coming tremendously prosperous National European Socialist Empire. God warns the soon-to-arise modern Babylon/ Chaldea/Tyre/Europe


" I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations"[288]


Thus Russia and her Asiatic allies will have a terrible falling-out with Europe. After this great battle between Europe and Russia, Christ will return and restore peace to this troubled planet, slowly but surely extending His righteous rule across the entire globe.


So, dear reader, where may we find Meschech, Tubal and Madai today? The only way we can understand the prophecies for our time is if we are able to locate these nations mentioned in God's Word.




The peoples of Madai first dwelt in North-west Iran, being called the Medes along with Medan. Their capital was Hagmatana (Persian) or Agbatana in Greek. They were called Ma-da-ai, in the Assyrian inscriptions and became associated and linked up with the Medanites who invaded their territory from the west. Thus the names Madai and Medes were used interchangeably, but the Medanites formed the ruling class.


After the defeat on the Scythians in 584 BC, a colony of Medes was established along  the Don River. They thus moved north of the Black Sea and into Scythia[289]


The Greeks called them the Sauro-Matae and they spoke the Scythian tongue[290] which was  much like that  of the peoples of Persia[291] and were also known as Surmatai or Syrmatai[292]. It would appear that many Elamites, who dwelt adjacent to the Madai in Iran, probably migrated with them into south-eastern Europe [see Is.21:2].


Many ancient writers refer to them. Strabo mentions the Matiani or Matieni[293] as does Herodotus[294] and Pliny[295]. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of the Sauro-matians dwelling near the Hister (modern Danube)[296]. We also know that the Sea of Azov was anciently known as Maeotis Palus; on its shores dwelt the Maioti or Maiotiki[297].


The Sarmatian dagger and sword used by these people were exactly like that of the Medes[298]. Researcher, Sulimirski, maintains that


"the Sarmatians were...closely akin to the ancient Medes, Parthians and Persians[299]".


While Rostovtzeff wrote that


"the Scythian kingdom - a formation almost completely Iranian, a northern counter-part of the kingdom of Darius and Xerxes...the Sarmatians, whose Iranian nationality is not disputed"[300].


Herodotus wrote that the Medes were beginning to settle in the Ukraine even in his time. He maintained that  there was a people who "dress in the Median fashion" and who "claim to be colonists from Media" that "live north of Thrace...beyond the Danube"[301]. Pliny noted that


"Next come the two mouths of the river Don, where the inhabitants are the Sarmatae, said to be descended from the Medes"[302].


Professor Lundman says that the peoples of Russia, today, around the Black Sea and the Don are "perhaps...vestiges of the descendants of the Irano-Scythian tribes who inhabited southern Russia in ancient times"[303].


Who lives today along the Don, in southern Russia? The Ukrainians! They are also known as the Ruthenians and Little Russians. They comprise the second largest racial group in Russia after the Great Russians consisting of some 50 millions.


The Ukrainians near southern Poland and east Czechoslovakia are more brachycephalic than the others. Those in the north, the Volhynians, are shorter and are related to the White Russians or Byelorussians as we have seen in chapter two. The Ukrainians proper living to the south and east are taller, but their hair and eyes are darker. Their head forms are virtually identical to that of the Volhynians and blondes are not uncommon[304], while their eyes are generally a light brown [305].Finally, Herodotus associates them with Meschech and Tubal: "the Matienians, the Moschi, Tibereni..."[306].


We should perhaps also realise that before the advent of Gorbachev and then Yeltsin as Russian President, the previous ruthless Communist bosses Chernenko, Brezhnev and Khrushchev were all Ukrainians and not Russian (Stalin was a Georgian and Lenin's father was probably a Tartar, although his mother was German).




In discussing Tubal, Gesenius noted that Tubal was founder of the Tiberani, "a nation of Asia Minor dwelling by the Euxine Sea to the West of the Moschi". He concluded that there should be no doubt that Tubal and Meschech comprise the modern Russian people[307].


The people of Tubal were variously known as Tubla Tabal or Tabali by the Assyrians who refer to them giving tribute of "great horses" to Ashurbanipal; Tiberani or Tibarenoi by the Greeks; and Thobelites by Josephus[308]. They were always identified with the Moschi in Asia Minor. The Septuagint version translates "Meschech and Moschi" as "Mosoch and Thobel". Where could they be located today?


After the Hittite Empire fell (c 1200 BC), the Tabali moved into that territory vacated by the Hittites, establishing twenty-one city-states[309]. A region of their territory became known as Subartu. The Tabali of Toboli migrated over the Caucasus like so many others before and after them. Once in southern Russia they became identified with the Muschovites and Sarmatians[310], establishing themselves for a time along the River Volga.


Bohn, the editor of Marco Polo's  Travels, has this to say :


"The Bolgar, Bulgar, or Bulghar, here spoken of is the name of a town and extensive district in Tartary, lying to the eastward of the Volga, and now inhabited by the Bashkirs, sometimes distinguished from the Bulgaria on the Danube, by the appellation of the Greater Bulgaria."[311].


It appears therefore that "Volga" and "Bulga"are one and the same; they appear to be identical with the root form of the name Tubal! Huxley agrees that the name Volga evolved into Bulgaria[312].


Tubal thus split into two like so many families: one branch migrated northwards, the other westwards. The group which moved into the Balkan Peninsula became known as the Bulgarians, mingling with the Sarmatians and adopting their particular Slavic language and customs.


There was a city called Bulghar on the River Volga, near the River Kiama in the land of the Bulghars [313] also known as Bulgaria![314] Interestingly, a leader of the Khazar armies which filled the void left by the Toboli after migrating out of southern Russia, was called Balkan[315].


On the Volga today, all that  is left of the once great city of Bolgara which Marco Polo mentions in his first chapter, is a little village. It became the seat of Mongol rule in the thirteenth century for a time.


The mountain range of Hoemus was changed to the Balkans in south-eastern Europe after the Toboli settled there. The name recalls the Balkan hills and Balkan Bay alongside the Caspian Sea where Tubal once settled. Perhaps the name Toplitza in Bulgaria is a derivative of Tobol[316].


The second syllable of the word "Bulgaria" is of central Asiatic origin being found in the name of Kash-ghar in the plateau of Pamir, where some of Tubal once lived. The Bulghars conquered the native Slavs in that land. To this day there are two types in Bulgaria : a tall, dark-haired type; and a shorter, fairer type, descendants of the other Slavs[317].


The other branch of the Toboli migrated northwards, perhaps giving their name to Lake Bataton Balta and the Baltic Sea. They are today settled north-east of Moscow around Tobolsk. There is also the tribe of Tubalai who live on the banks of the Tuba River and although speak Turkic are perhaps Samoyed[318]. They may have acquired their name from Tubal.


A place-name alongside the Volga was known as Siberia[319]. Today, Siberia is in northern Russia where the Toboloskis migrated. The name originated in the Subartu district of ancient Tubal in Asia Minor.


Another mutated branch of Tubal may be the Basques who dwell on the border of Spain and France. Basques is the form of the Latin Vasco. The French province of Gascogne or Guascogne is named after them. Also, the mountain range seperating France and Germany is called the Vosges, anciently called the Wasgen of Forest of the Basques - this signifies their migration into the area after the Flood. Roger Collins in his excellent work The Basques states that Basque historian, Esteban de Garibay published four volumes of his Compendino Historial de las Chronicas (Antwerp AD 1571) in which he claimed to trace their origins:


"He took up the notion, already popular with other Spanish antiquarians, that the Iberian peninsula had been populated by the descendants of Tubal, one of the sons of Japhet the son of Noah. However, he gave this legend a distinctive twist in making the Basque regions ... the principal focus of Tubal's activity and he 'proved' this thesis by claiming affinity between various Basque place-names and those in the Bible that were associated with Armenia, where the ark had come to rest ..."[320].


Collins then proceeds to give the similarities in place-names and so forth. Garibay may be correct, but further investigation is required.




The descendants of Meschech were well-known to the people of the Middle East centuries after the great and terrible flood of Noah.


The Assyrians knew them as the Mushku, the Greeks as the Moskhi and by others as Musku, Muskaaia, Moshi and Moska. Herodotus, a well-known ancient historian, calls them Moschi and Tibarenoi. And the ancient capital of Cappadocia was Mazaca.


While in Asia Minor they were inseparable from the Toboli[321]. They were the "natural " or hereditary enemies of the Assyrians and were largely the cause of the Assyrians losing power over other peoples from time to time[322].


They migrated with Tubal up to the Black Sea and into the Russian plains[323]. Dr Gesenius wrote in the nineteenth century that Meschech became the Moschi, a very barbaric people. They dwelt, he said, in the Moschian Mountains[324]. The Moschian Mountains were the connecting chain between the Caucasus and Anti Taurus Mountains[325]. The Scofield Reference Bible says that the "reference to Meschech and Tubal (Moscow and Tobolosk) is a clear mark of identification"[326]. Strabo claimed that here was a district named "Moschice", a very barbaric people, while Lempriere stated in his dictionary that the Moschi were a people to the west of the Caspian Sea[327].


Expert Milner explains :


"The territory first occupied by Meschech after their descent from the table-lands of Pamir was the plain at present peopled by the Turcomans, between the Oxus and the Caspian ... The whole district within five hundred miles of Moscow seems to be saturated with the name of Meschech".[328]


He then refers the reader to Steiler's German Hand Atlas  to prove his point  by referring to the following place-names: Moscow; the Moskva River; the Novo-Mosc-owsk on a tributary of the Dnieper; Mosch-Aisk near Borodino;Mosch-ok between Moscow and Nijini Novogorod; Mosch-arki stood on a tributary of the Volga River; Misch-etski stood between Moskow and the Tula; Mischiritschi on the border with the Ukraine; Mesch-a, a branch of the Dwina River; Mesch-Tschowsk near Tula; Mesch-Tschenskaia on the border with the Ukraine and Meschk-uze near Riga! It should also be noted that the Finns of Russia are divided into two tribes, Erses and Moskshes[329]




No doubt, the Great Russians occupying the thousands of square kilometres around Moscow descend from their ancient forefather, Meschech[330]. The city of Moscow is spelt Moskva by the Russians themselves and it stood in the midst of a Russian state once known as Muscovy. The whole of Russia, in fact, was known as Muskovi for a long time even until the time of Ivan the Terrible[331].


The Peoples of Moschi were renowned as being a cruel race anciently : "woe is me that I sojourn in Mesech"[332]. The term quoted here is from the Bible, being used as we use the term "Vandal", "Hun" of "Philistine" today, as being typical of cruelty and mercilessness[333].


It has long been generally understood by many Russian academics that much of their population is descended from a branch of the Scythians. A famous Russian poet, Alexander Blok, for example, noted such in one of his poems, The Scythians[334]. Also, Russian historian Alekseyev, in his work, In Search Of Our Ancestors, writes that the Russians are a branch of the Scythians[335].


There we have it - as plain as daylight ! The peoples of Madai, Tubal and Meschech may be found in western Russia. They are a very tough, hardened people, best to be left alone and not interfered or tangled with .


However, scores of various groups fall within the borders of modern-day Russia, although dominated by Meschech. They include 16 autonomous republics, 5 autonomous regions, 10 national districts and 6 territories and 49 regions. They include such ethnic entities such as the Komi, Karella, Chuvash, Bashkirias, Tuvas, Yakutias, Jews, Ossetias and so forth. The list is virtually endless. These people are destined to more-or-less stay together and attempt to forge an empire out of the rubble of the mess left behind by the Communists. It will be an enormously powerful empire, with huge manpower and natural resources with technological assistance from Germany. It seems that Russia will hearken back to the days of the Tsars and appoint someone who ccan be seen to be a symbol of unity, and who would once again ignite the imaginations of these tribes and peoples. He wold have ancient roots and therefore a 'right' to champion their cause for a better lifestyle and religious liberty. As a royal he would be the mystical union between the present and the past, the people and their God, embodying the soul of the nation and representing them on the international stage.


Finally, dear reader, expect a far different looking Russia in the years ahead. Prophecy seems to indicate that the Baltic states will be joined with Europe and the Ukraine may gain some form of semi-independence. While the Great Russians will initially be partners of Europe, they will eventually have a terrible falling out with them which will lead to the most horrible conflict in human history.






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[1] Josephus Antiquities : 1:6:4

[2] Douglas 1972 : 356

[3] Pfeiffer 1966 : 217

[4] Hinz 1972 : 21

[5] ibid

[6] Taylor 1937 : 140

[7] Gayre 1973 : 140

[8] Los 1967 : 149

[9] Simon 1959 : 28

[10] Encyc Brit : 9th ed : art "Elam"

[11] Hinz 1972 : 72

[12] Waddell 1929 : 453

[13] Cameron 1936 : 72

[14] Hannay 1916 : 199

[15] Vernadsky 1959 : 57

[16] Pliny Bk iv.xiii.80

[17] Sulimirski 1970 : 24

[18] ibid : 102

[19] ibid : 117

[20] Coon 1963 : 198

[21] Gimbutas 1963 : 63

[22] Rostovtzeff 1922 : 19

[23] ibid : 57, 59

[24] Vernadsky 1959 : 57

[25]  Hannay 1916 : 327

[26] Strong 1890 : # 8269

[27] Dvornik 1956 : 22

[28] Gimbutas 1963 : 64

[29] Sulimirski 1970 : 196

[30] McGovern 1939 : 42

[31] Dvornik 1956 : 24

[32] Taylor 1947 : 391

[33] Sulimirski 1970 : 166

[34] ibid : 167

[35] ibid

[36] Grant 1923 : 143, 272

[37] McGovern 1939 : 42

[38] Sulimirski 1970 : 22

[39] Lempriere 1788 : 449

[40] Dvornik 1956 : 47-48

[41] ibid

[42] McEvedy 1967 : 83

[43] Waddell 1929 : map 4

[44] Langer 1968 : 257

[45] Hoeh 1957 : 8

[46] Oded : map opp page 142; Cameron 1936 : 261

[47] Vakar 1956 : 40

[48] Cross 1953 : 55

[49] Geipel 1969 : 189

[50] ibid : 43

[51] Encyc Brit  vol 25  15th ed : art "Poland"

[52] Coon 1948 : 566

[53] Wojciechowski 1947 : 77

[54] Barnett 1958 : 46

[55] Geipel 1969 : 195

[56] ibid : 261 (map)

[57]Coon 1948 : 588

[58] Field 1970 : 126

[59] Hoeh 1957 : 8

[60] Lempriere 1788 : 222

[61] Strabo : map 7

[62] Dvornik 1956 : 26; Sulimirski 1970 : 190-1

[63] ibid

[64] Marcellinus : xxiii.6, 42-43

[65] Dvornik 1956 : 26

[66] Bk 2, ch 48 : 688, quoted in Dvornik 1956 : 26

[67] Sulimirski 1970 : 191

[68] Pliny Bk  vi,xviii.50

[69] Strabo 11.8.8

[70]Ripley 1899 : 411

[71] Pliny quoted in Dvornik 1956 : 26

[72] ibid

[73] Hoeh 1957 : 8

[74] Gen 14:1-4,9

[75] Hoeh 1957 : 8

[76] Hoeh 1969 : 2 : 21

[77] Sulimirski 1970 : 190

[78] Taylor 1947 : 390

[79] Geography of Strabo  : 227

[80] Strabo 12 .3.8

[81] ibid 12.3.25

[82] Lempriere 1788 : 223

[83] Pliny vi.x.26

[84] Lempriere 1788 : 271

[85] Hertz 1928 : 116-7

[86] Josephus Antiquities 1 : 6

[87] Herodotus Histories 1 : 7

[88] Gayre 1973 : 24

[89] Douglas 1972 : 255, 760-1

[90] Simon 1959 : 57

[91]  ibid

[92]  ibid

[93] Ross 1981 : 29

[94] Saggs 1984 : 46

[95] Pfeiffer 1979 : 44

[96] Gayre 1973 : 54

[97] Hertz 1928 : 112

[98] ibid : 114

[99] von Fange  c1980 : 33

[100] von Sadovsky 1984 : 16

[101] Lempriere 1788 : 91, 123

[102] ibid : 544

[103] Langer 1968 : 50

[104] Coon 1956 : 57

[105] Radulescu 1984 : 77-131

[106] Huxley 1974 : 121

[107] Encyc Brit  15th ed, art "Albania"

[108] ibid

[109] Coon 1948 : 633-634

[110] ibid : 604

[111] Pilkey 1984 : 94

[112] Encyc Brit  15th ed, art "Albania"

[113] Arnakis 1969 : 30

[114] Coon 1948 : 633-34

[115] Aalders  1981 : 234

113 Pollo & Puto 1981 : 40

114 Hoeh 1957 : 21

115 Wysner 1945 : 26

116 ibid : 29

117 ibid : 34

118 Jer 48:9; Ezek 30:5

119 Nah 3:9

120  Marcellinus xxxi.8.21

121  ibid

122  Pliny iv.xi.40. See Lempriere 1788 : 122

123  ibid vi.x.29; vi.iii. 11-12. See Lempriere 1788 : 27,114,142,292

124  Lempriere 1788 : 142

125  ibid

126  Eccl 1:9-10, KJV [KJV used throughout]

127  Is 11:11

128  Ezek 32:11-12,22,24,30;. See Dan 11:40-42

129 Is 22:6

130  Is 21:2,9. See Jer 25:25

131  Jer 49:35-39

[116] Gen 25 : 1-6

[117] Cottrell 1975 : 178

[118] Bristowe 1971 : 12

[119] Bashan 1959 : 29

[120] Kalyanraman 1969 : 1 : 79

[121] Gayre 1973 : 23

[122] ibid : 23-24

[123] ibid : 20-21

[124] ibid

[125] Kalyanaraman 1969 : 1 : 178

[126] ibid

[127] Gayre 1973 : 29

[128] Haddon 1912 : 21

[129] Field 1970 : 152

[130] Ezekiel 38 : 2

[131] Bullinger c1890 : 1161

[132] ibid

[133] Gen 46 : 21

[134] Num 26 : 38; see I Chron 8 : 1-2

[135] I Chron 7 : 6

[136] Bullinger c1890 : 540

[137] Hannay 1916 : 246

[138] Orr 1939 : art "Rosh"

[139] Boardman 1982 : vol 3: 360

[140] Herodotus "Thalia": 94

[141] Pliny Bk vi .sec 18

[142] Gesenius 1872  : 534, 626, 955, 1121

[143] quoted in Cumming

[144] quoted in Rupert 1911 : 127-28

[145] Keil 1891 : 2 : 157

[146] Kachur 1972 : 5, 7

[147] Bowle 1958 : 154 Many theories abound as to the origin of the Rus. See                Davidson 1976 : 59-60

[148] Poliakov 1974 : 113

[149] Ibid

[150] Lubachko 1972 : 1

[151] Cross 1952 : 55

[152] Geipel 1969 : 229; See also Encyc Brit  15th ed, art "USSR"

[153] Vakar 1956 : 39

[154] quoted in Davidson 1976

[155] Hannay 1916 : 465-66

[156] Yamauchi 1982 : 20

[157] ibid : 21 See also  Riasonovsky 1947 : 96-110

[158] Elliott 1993 : 178 (see the entire article)

[159] Langer 1968 : 258-59; Koestler 1976 : 77-78

[160] Thomsen 1876

[161] Porphyrogenitus ch 9

[162] Lundman 1962 : 4

[163] Bilinsky 1964 : 79-80

[164] Huxley 1974 : 123

[165] Robertson 1981 : 562

[166] Jud 7 : 12

[167] Hab 3 : 7-8

[168] Field 1970 : 152

[169] Lawrence quoted in ibid : 39

[170] Waddell 1929 : 61, 79; Waddell 1924 : 14

[171] Gayre 1973 : 20, 49

[172] Hannay 1916 : 200

[173] Field 1970 : 139

[174] Cotterell 1980 : 147

[175] Huart :1927 : 26

[176] Yamauchi 1990 : 33

[177] Hannay 1916 : 315

[178] Sayce 1925 : 231-32

[179] ibid :  232

[180] ibid : 73-74

[181] Herodotus Bk 1 , sec 125

[182] Douglas 1972 : 970

[183] Ezra 4: 9

[184] Bullinger c1890 : 623

[185] Huxley 1974 : 127; Childe 1926 : 160

[186] Taylor 1937 : 186, 214

[187]  ibid : 210

[188] Huxley 1974 : 127

[189] Culican 1965 : 54

[190] Time, 25 June 1990. Special issue : Germany. Toward Unity.

[191] Daniel 4:14-16,23-26. See 5: 24-31; Luke 21: 24; Rom 11: 25b

[192] Hunter 1907 : 62; Kalyanaraman 1969 : 2 : 438; Beddoe 1912 : 27

[193] Hunter 1907 : 62

[194] ibid : 66

[195] ibid

[196] Pliny iv.i.3

[197] ibid : iv.xi.40

[198] Herodotus 4.1,12

[199] Strabo 3 : 265

[200] Lempriere 1788 : 365

[201] Geipel 1969 : 230

[202] Coon 1948 : 570-1; Taylor 1937 : 214

[203] Paradise 1981 : 10 : 610

[204] Birnbaum 1984 : 238

[205] D'iakonov 1986 : 148

[206] Herodotus iv.c.21 : 108

[207] Vakar 1956 : 38

[208] Cross 1953 : 38

[209] Hannay 1916 : 310

[210] ibid : 311

[211] ibid : 422

[212] Grant 1971 : 21; Rapson 1914 : map between pages 28, 29

[213] Lempriere 1788 : 282

[214] ibid

[215] ibid

[216] Ripley 1899 : 423-4

[217] Lempriere 1788 : 189

[218] ibid : 190

[219] Hannay 1916 : 178

[220] ibid : 183

[221] ibid : 198

[222] Herodotus i.c.125

[223] Hannay 1916 : 178

[224] ibid : 359

[225] Pliny 6 : 17

[226] Ripley 1899 : 424

[227] ibid

[228] Coon 1948 : 613; Geipel 1969 : 207

[229] Gen. 25 : 3

[230] See Lang 1970 : 78

[231] Waddell 1924 : 12

[232] ibid : 13

[233] Waddell 1929 : 41

[234] ibid : 42

[235] ibid

[236] ibid : 12

[237] Huxley 1974 : 127; Sayce 1928 : 237; Childe 1926 : 160; Lundman

   1977 : 55

[238] Beddoe 1912 : 14-15

[239] Baker 1974 : 510

[240] ibid

[241] Taylor 1947 : 137

[242] von Luschan 1971 : 129

[243] Teimourian 1991

[244] Blau 1991 : 623-637

[245] Haddon 1912 ; Field 1970 : 68-69; Jochelson 1928 : 237

[246] Kalyanaraman 1969 : 1 : 147

[247] Pilkey 1982 : 42

[248] Pilkey 1984 : 9

[249] Taylor 1947 : 231

[250] Kalyanaraman 1969 : 1 : 147

[251] Institute of Culture 1958 : 1: 142

[252] Trubacev 1985 : 215

[253] Gimbutas 1963 : 42-43

[254] Beddoe 1912 : 77

[255] Bilmanis 1951 : 26

[256] Taylor 1947 : 389

[257] Baker 1974 : 219. See Olsen 1981 : 48

[258] Beddoe 1912 : 77

[259] Lundman 1977 : 41

[260] Jamieson 1982 : 13

[261] Coon 1948 : 363

[262] Johnston c1900 : 2 : 621

[263] ibid : 568

[264] Lundman 1977 : 148

[265] Beddoe 1912 : 61

[266] Lundman 1977 : 2

[267] Liptak 1983 : 92; see Ripley 1899 : 432

[268] ibid : 162

[269] Hall 1913 : 174; see Mackenzie c1900: 3-4;  Hastings 1921 : vol 12 : 40;  Linaker 1991 : 93-95

[270] Woolley 1929 : 7

[271] Williams 1908 : 1 : 342

[272] Hall 1913 : 174

[273] Endrey 1975 : 7-8

[274] ibid : 11

[275] Jer 25 : 25

[276] Job 2 : 11 etc

[277] Buttrick 1962 : art "Shuah"

[278] Oded 1979, map opposite page 142

[279] Lempriere 1788 : 598


[280]  Rev 16 :12

[281]  Rev 9: 13-21

[282]  Dan 11: 30,44

[283]  Is 13: 4,17

[284]  Is 21: 2,9; cp Rev 18 : 2

[285]  Jer  50: 9, 42-42

[286] Jer 51: 11,  27

[287] Ezekiel 27:13

[288] Ezek 28:7

[289] Latham c1850 : 216

[290] Yamauchi 1982 : 64

[291] Sulimirski 1970 : 22

[292] ibid : 22

[293] Strabo 11.8.8

[294] Herodotus Bk I, sec 203

[295] Pliny Bk vi . xiii .48

[296] Ammianus Marcellinus xxxi. 2. 13

[297] Hannay 1916 : 194

[298] Sulimirski  1970 : 52

[299] ibid : 22

[300] Rostovtzeff 1922 : 9

[301] Herodotus Bk v, sec 9

[302] Pliny Bk vi.v.19

[303] Lundman 1977 : 49

[304] Coon  1948 : 570

[305] ibid : 571

[306] Herodotus bk 1 : sec 94

[307] Gesenius  1872 : 858

[308] Josephus Antiquities 1: 6:1

[309] Douglas 1972 : 528

[310] Chamberlain 1854, quoting Herodotus

[311] Bohn 1854  : 4

[312] Huxley 1939 : 177

[313] Koestler 1976 : 9

[314] Encyclopedia Brittanica, vol 28 : 971

[315] ibid : 60

[316] Milner 1941 : 34

[317] Huxley 1939 : 122. See also Arnakis 1969 : 24-27

[318] Brown c1880 : 242

[319] Milner 1941 : 34

[320]  Collins 1986 : 258

[321] Douglas 1972 : 811

[322] Gayre 1973 : 54

[323] Sayce 1925 : 48

[324] Gesenius 1872 : 534, 626, 955, 1121

[325] Custance 1975 : 96

[326] Scofield 1917 : 883

[327] Lempriere 1788: 390

[328] Milner 1886 : ch 9

[329] Bloch 1913 : 615

[330] see Halley 1965 : 91

[331] Custance 1975 : 91

[332] Ps 120 : 5

[333] Bullinger c1890 : 845

[334] Blok 1970 : 161

[335] Alekseyev 1972 : 297